Health and Medical News and Resources

General interest items edited by Janice Flahiff

[Press release] Future air quality could put plants, people at risk

Future air quality could put plants, people at risk — ScienceDaily.

Kyoto is intended to cut global emissions of g...

Kyoto is intended to cut global emissions of greenhouse gases. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

From the 6 November 2014 press release

Source:University of Sheffield
Summary:Future ozone levels could be high enough to cause serious damage to plants and crops, even if emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced, says new research. And without sufficient reductions in emissions, ozone levels could also pose a risk to human health.

y combining projections of climate change, emissions reductions and changes in land use across the USA, an international research team estimate that by 2050, cumulative exposure to ozone during the summer will be high enough to damage vegetation.

Although the research findings — published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions — focus on the impact in the USA, they raise wider concerns for global air quality, according to lead researcher Dr Maria Val Martin, from the University of Sheffield’s Faculty of Engineering

“Modelling future air quality is very complex, because so many factors need to be taken into account at both a global and local scale,” says Dr Val Martin. “The picture isn’t uniform across the USA, with some areas seeing much higher surface ozone levels than others. However, our findings show that the emissions reductions we’re expecting to achieve won’t guarantee air quality on their own, as they will be offset by changes in climate and land use and by an increase in wildfires. This is an issue that will affect all parts of the world, not just the USA.”

The research looked at air quality under two scenarios set out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: one which envisages greenhouse gas emissions peaking in 2040 and then falling, the other in which emissions continue to rise until 2100. The team combined data on climate change, land use and emissions to create a picture of air quality across the USA in 2050.

The model showed that, if greenhouse gas emissions peak in 2040, then by 2050 surface ozone will remain below levels set to safeguard human health, despite increases in ozone caused by higher temperatures and changes in agriculture and forestation. If emissions continue to rise until 2100, then some areas of the USA will see surface ozone above the safe levels set for human health.

November 9, 2014 Posted by | environmental health | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

http://summitcountyvoice.com/2012/01/12/epa-makes-greenhouse-gas-data-more-transparent/

From the EPA 11 Janaury press release

2010 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data from Large Facilities Now Available / First release of data through the national GHG reporting program

WASHINGTON – For the first time, comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) data reported directly from large facilities and suppliers across the country are now easily accessible to the public through EPA’s GHG Reporting Program. The 2010 GHG data released today includes public information from facilities in nine industry groups that directly emit large quantities of GHGs, as well as suppliers of certain fossil fuels…

…..EPA’s online data publication tool allows users to view and sort GHG data for calendar year 2010 from over 6,700 facilities in a variety of ways—including by facility, location, industrial sector, and the type of GHG emitted. This information can be used by communities to identify nearby sources of GHGs, help businesses compare and track emissions, and provide information to state and local governments.

GHG data for direct emitters show that in 2010:

•Power plants were the largest stationary sources of direct emissions with 2,324 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (mmtCO2e), followed by petroleum refineries with emissions of 183 mmtCO2e.

•CO2 accounted for the largest share of direct GHG emissions with 95 percent, followed by methane with 4 percent, and nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases accounting for the remaining 1 percent.

•100 facilities each reported emissions over 7 mmtCO2e, including 96 power plants, two iron and steel mills and two refineries.

Mandated by the FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, EPA launched the GHG Reporting Program in October 2009, requiring the reporting of GHG data from large emission sources across a range of industry sectors, as well as suppliers of products that would emit GHGs if released or combusted. Most reporting entities submitted data for calendar year 2010. However, an additional 12 source categories will begin reporting their 2011 GHG data this year.

Access EPA’s GHG Reporting Program Data and Data Publication Tool:http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghgdata/

Information on the GHG Reporting Program: http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ghgrulemaking.html

Information on the U.S. Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sources and Sinks:http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html

 

 

 

 

January 15, 2012 Posted by | environmental health, Librarian Resources | , , , | 2 Comments

Climate Sensitivity Greater Than Previously Believed

Se below

estimated by the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 3.2, fast track 2000 project

From the 31 December 2011 Medical News Today article

Many of the particles in the atmosphere are produced by the natural world, and it is possible that plants have in recent decades reduced the effects of the greenhouse gases to which human activity has given rise. One consequence of this is that the climate may be more sensitive to emissions caused by human activity than we have previously believed. Scientists at the University of Gothenburg (Sweden) have collected new data that may lead to better climate models.

“Emissions by plants to the atmosphere are influenced by climate change – higher temperatures can increase the rate of the biological processes that control the emissions. If natural emissions increase as the temperature rises, this in turn increases the amount of particles that are formed”, says Kent Salo of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Gothenburg

The interactions between particles and the climate constitute a very complex web of processes. …

Read the entire news article

December 31, 2011 Posted by | environmental health | , , | Leave a comment

Aging Could Influence Climate Change: Individual Carbon Dioxide Emissions Decline in Old Age

Age distribution of expenditures on energy-intensive goods (average values for U.S. resident per capita and per year in U.S. dollars). (Credit: © MPIDR, Emilio Zagheni)
From the 7 November Science Daily article
New demographic analysis reveals that the COemissions of the average American increase until around the age of 65, and then start to decrease. For the United States this means that, although the aging of the population will lead to a slight overall rise in CO2emissions over the next four decades, the long-term trends indicate that increasing life expectancy will result in a reduction in emissions.
Read the entire article

November 14, 2011 Posted by | Medical and Health Research News, Public Health | , , , | Leave a comment

   

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