Health and Medical News and Resources

General interest items edited by Janice Flahiff

Made ya look: Moviegoers may have little control over their eye movements during Hollywood-style films, study finds [news release]

From the 22 March 2016 Kansas State Univ news release

Tuesday, March 22, 2016

https://i1.wp.com/www.k-state.edu/media/images/mar16/shots1-6-sm.jpg

Lester Loschky, associate professor of psychological sciences at Kansas State University, used six shots, a 12-second clip, from the 1979 James Bond film, “Moonraker,” to measure eye movements and understanding.

MANHATTAN — Hollywood-style films may control viewers’ attention more than originally thought, according to a Kansas State University researcher.

Lester Loschky, associate professor of psychological sciences, recently published “What Would Jaws Do? The Tyranny of Film” in PLOS ONE. The study suggests viewers may have limited cognitive control of their eye movements while trying to understand films.

“Hollywood-style filmmakers have developed stimuli — such as shorter shot length, more motion in the frame and higher contrast — that is amazing at directing the viewers’ attention from moment to moment in exactly the way that the filmmaker wants,” Loschky said. “It is not that film producers have complete mind control because we willingly participate in it — we enjoy movies — but they do have a lot of control over our attention.”

Loschky compared eye movements of people who watched a three-minute clip of “Moonraker,” a 1979 James Bond film, with people who watched the last 12 seconds of the clip. His hypothesis, called the “Tyranny of Film,” was that film viewers’ eye movements are separate from a person’s understanding.

“We are investigating film perception and film comprehension together,” Loschky said. “In a static picture, people look at different things at different times, but during a movie suddenly everybody is looking at the same things at the same time.”

Loschky said that in the last 100 years, filmmakers slowly have gotten better at getting every viewer to look at the same place at the same time, a measurement called attentional synchrony. He attributes that to what he calls MTV-style editing, which is a greater frequency of cuts and shorter shot lengths. The researchers hypothesize that filmmakers are so good at influencing viewers’ eye movements in Hollywood-style movies that viewers’ understanding does not necessarily affect where they look.

March 22, 2016 Posted by | Psychology | , , , | Leave a comment

[Ohio State University Press Release] Gun use in PG-13 movies has more than tripled since 1985

From the press release via the 10 November 2013 EurekAlert

Contact: Brad Bushman
Bushman.20@osu.edu
614-688-8779
Ohio State University

Gun use in PG-13 movies has more than tripled since 1985

Researchers worry about effects on teen viewers

COLUMBUS, Ohio – The amount of gun violence shown in PG-13 films has more than tripled since 1985, the year the rating was introduced.

In fact, the most popular PG-13 movies of 2011 and 2012 showed significantly more gun violence than R-rated movies of the same time period, a new study reveals.

“It’s shocking how gun use has skyrocketed in movies that are often marketed directly at the teen audience,” said Brad Bushman, co-author of the study and professor of communication and psychology at The Ohio State University.

“You have to wonder why we are seeing this surge in gun violence in PG-13 movies, when it isn’t appearing in G, PG and R-rated films.”

Bushman conducted the research with Patrick Jamieson, Ilana Weitz and Daniel Romer of the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania. The study was published online Nov. 11, 2013, in the journal Pediatrics.

Bushman said the results are concerning because other research has revealed the presence of a “weapons effect”: People who simply see a gun, or even a picture of a gun, are more aggressive toward others.

“Based on what researchers have found, it is not good for teens to be viewing this much gun violence in films,” he said.

PG movies suggest that “some material may not be suitable for children,” according to the Motion Picture Association of America, which creates the ratings. PG-13 movies carry a sterner warning: “Parents strongly cautioned. Some material may be inappropriate for children under 13.” The MPAA says a PG-13 movie “may go beyond the PG rating” in violence “but does not reach the restricted R cateogry.”

PG-13 movies are also the most popular among viewers – 13 of the top 25 films in release during 2012 carried that rating, including seven of the top 10, according to the MPAA.

“By the standards of the MPAA, PG-13 movies shouldn’t have as much violence as R-rated movies, but they clearly do. It appears sex scenes are more likely to result in an R rating than scenes of violence,” Bushman said.

The researchers studied a database of 915 films that were drawn from the 30 top-grossing films for each year from 1950 to 2012. Researchers identified violent sequences performed by each character for each five-minute segment of the films.

They also noted whether each violent sequence since 1985 (the first full year after the PG-13 rating was introduced) included the use of a gun.

Overall, findings showed that the rate of violent sequences nearly quadrupled from 1950 to 2010. Since 1985, 94 percent of the movies studied (367 in total) had one or more five-minute segments that included violence. Overall, the films contained 700 segments with gun violence.

Findings showed that R-rated films averaged about 1.54 segments per hour featuring gun violence, and that number didn’t fluctuate much from 1985 to 2010. Movies rated G and PG averaged 0.41 segments of gun violence per hour, which also hasn’t changed since 1985.

The story is much different for films rated PG-13, Bushman said. In 1985, PG-13 movies essentially didn’t have any scenes of gun violence, but the number rose steadily until about 2005, when it began escalating even faster.

By 2010, PG-13 films averaged as many sequences featuring gun violence per hour as R-rated films. In 2011 and 2012, PG-13 movies actually had more gun violence than R-rated movies.

“The trend of increasing gun violence in PG-13 movies is disturbing because of what we know about the weapons effect and because those are the films kids are most attracted to,” Bushman said.

The weapons effect was first shown in 1967, in a study by psychologists that showed participants who were provoked until angry acted more aggressively toward others when there was a gun on a table in front of them.

Since then, more than 50 other studies have replicated the weapons effect, even among people who weren’t angry.

“Seeing these violent gun scenes in movies may be strengthening the weapons effect among young people,” Bushman said.

“In addition, these movies essentially provide young people scripts for how to use guns in real life, as we have seen in copycat killings. It is a bad situation.”

 

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Data from the study were collected as part of The Coding of Media and Health Project at the Annenberg Public Policy Center. Funding for this study came from the APPC and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

Contact: Brad Bushman, (614) 688-8779; Bushman.20@osu.edu

Written by Jeff Grabmeier, (614) 292-8457; Grabmeier.1@osu.edu

 

 

November 11, 2013 Posted by | Consumer Health, Consumer Safety, Psychology, Public Health | , , , , , | Leave a comment

How Tearjerkers Make People Happier

From the 29 March 2012 Medical News Today article

People enjoy watching tragedy movies like “Titanic” because they deliver what may seem to be an unlikely benefit: tragedies actually make people happier in the short-term.

Researchers found that watching a tragedy movie caused people to think about their own close relationships, which in turn boosted their life happiness. The result was that what seems like a negative experience – watching a sad story – made people happier by bringing attention to some positive aspects in their own lives.

“Tragic stories often focus on themes of eternal love, and this leads viewers to think about their loved ones and count their blessings,” said Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick, lead author of the study and associate professor of communication at Ohio State University. …

March 29, 2012 Posted by | Psychology | , , , | 1 Comment

15 Great Films Every Med Student Should See (and Perhaps the rest of us!)

This is from a December 9th MD Master’s Degree posting (Thank you Karen for the message about this)

When you’re stuck in the endless cycle of class, study groups and rounds, it might seem like you’ll never graduate and become a fully licensed physician. That’s why it’s important to take a step back from the books and refresh your perspective on medicine, health care, and the difference you’ll make through your research and patient care. Here are 15 great films that will recharge your motivation and passion for the profession.

Article 99: This 1992 movie, named after an article of the Uniform Code of Military Justice that refers to “misbehavior before the enemy,” like cowardly conduct or abandoning command — follows a tragically common ailment that still plagues today’s health care system, the inability of veterans’ hospitals to care for all of its patients. An impressive cast including Jeffrey Tambor, Ray Liotta, Kiefer Sutherland, Forest Whitaker, Lea Thompson, John C. McGinley and John Mahoney round out the story of doctors at a VA hospital who decide to make their own rules when bureaucracy threatens to shut them down.

The Race for the Double Helix: Jeff Goldblum, Tim Pigott-Smith and Juliet Stevenson star in this film about the race to crack the mystery behind DNA. Based on the true story of two competing groups of scientists from two universities — Francis Crick and James D. Watson from Cambridge University and Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin from King’s College London — it’s a film that any medical student or doctor interested in research, discovery, and the thrill of making new advancements in medicine.

People Will Talk: Oscar-winning director Joseph Mankiewicz created this 1951 comedy that’s also a heavy commentary on society and the way we understand health care. The film stars Cary Grant as a gynecologist who gets involved with an unmarried pregnant patient, played by Jeanne Crain. But besides the romance, the movie involves a McCarthy-esque investigation into Grant’s Dr. Praetorius and raises some interesting questions about medical ethics and the profession.

And the Band Played On: During a time when AIDS barely started to get the attention it deserved, this film, based on the book by the same name and directed by Roger Spottiswoode and starring Matthew Modine, Alan Alda and Patrick Bauchau, tackles the nasty fight between scientists, doctors and politicians over treatment of the disease. It’s an important movie for doctors treating AIDS patients and anyone who wants a look into the history of the relationship between American politics, society and health care.

Awakenings: Penny Marshall directed this 1990 film — also based on a book — about nurses in the mental ward at a hospital in the Bronx. The book, by Dr. Oliver Sacks, is based on true stories of his World War I-era patients who fall into a sleep sickness, effectively causing them to sleep — or appear frozen — for decades. Dr. Sacks used an experimental drug to awaken his patients, and the film, starring Robert DeNiro, captures the creepy illness with grace and humor.

The Doctor: Directed by Randa Haines and starring William Hurt and Christine Lahti, this is a great film for patients and doctors who’ve come across seemingly harsh, uncaring physicians. Dr. Jack McKee — played by Hurt — is one such doctor who experiences a change of heart after becoming a patient himself. Wit: This film, starring Emma Thompson, is based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by Margaret Edson, which also won “Best New Play” from the New York Drama Critics’ Circle in 1999. John Donne expert and English lit professor Vivian Bearing — played by Thompson in the film — is diagnosed with Stage IV ovarian cancer and is subjected to crippling chemotherapy. Told partially through flashbacks, Bearing’s attempt to make sense of her disease and treatment is powerful, and based partly on Edson’s own experience working in a hospital to portray the day-to-day humility of tests and being poked and prodded by doctors, interns and students.

Malice: Called “deviously entertaining” by the New York Times, this movie, starring Alec Baldwin, Gwyneth Paltrow, Bebe Neuwirth, Bill Pullman and Nicole Kidman directed by Harold Becker and written by Aaron Sorkin, is actually a thriller about a doctor who saves a patient after being attacked by a rapist. It’s a story that involves murder, sexual assault, an illegal abortion, and a lot of other creepy stuff, but it’s fun, too, if you’re in the mood for a little mad doctor action.

Sicko: Whether you agree with Michael Moore’s propositions or wish he’d never picked up a camera, this movie raises a lot of questions about the crumbling health care system in America. It’s an important documentary for anyone who’s fed up with bureaucracy or who’s involved in health insurance claims or politics, and of course is an intriguing film for doctors who have a lot at stake — in good ways and bad — as the health care system is worked out. Something the Lord Made: This movie aired on HBO in 2004 and was subsequently nominated for two Golden Globes, two Emmys (it won one), and many other awards and recognitions. Starring Alan Rickman, Mos Def, Kyra Sedgwick, and Gabrielle Union, it follows the true story of an arrogant white cardiologist — Dr. Alfred Blalock — who brings with him to Johns Hopkins his young African American mechanic — Vivien Thomas — who also assists in surgeries. Together, the pair invented bypass surgery, but Thomas gets left out of the celebration.

One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest: Ken Kesey’s iconic 1962 novel was turned into an equally impressive film in 1975 starring Jack Nicholson as the rapist transferred to a mental hospital to serve part of his sentence. The film won five Academy Awards and is a chilling commentary on the harsh methods used to rehabilitate the mentally challenged. Also an enlightening movie for doctors and students wanting to learn more about the complex psychology behind doctor-patient relationships, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest tackles larger issues like health care institutions’ effect on personality, morality and sexuality.

John Q: It’s true that this film is a bit over the top in some respects, but the drama is all part of a very real, very troubled system. Denzel Washington plays a fed-up father of a son who is denied a heart transplant, and he takes over an ER — quite violently — in order to make his point. Starring other great actors like James Woods, Robert Duvall, Anne Heche and Ray Liotta, John Q is a good study on just how crazy and helpless insurance companies have made us. The Men: Fred Zinneman’s 1950 film starring Marlon Brando still poses relevant questions and issues about the way our society cares for wounded veterans. Brando plays an ex-GI who is paralyzed below the waist who struggles with isolation, depression, self-pity and rehabilitation as he is supported by his doctor and fiancee.

My Left Foot: The Story of Christy Brown: Daniel Day-Lewis plays Irishman Christy Brown — who was born with cerebral palsy — in this real-life drama directed by Jim Sheridan. Winner of two Academy Awards, the 1989 film is a moving story about the physical and social challenges that the disabled face. It’s also pretty awesome to see all the things Brown could do with his left foot.

Red Beard: This 1965 Japanese film, based on a Dostoevsky novel and a Shugoro Yamamoto short story collection, follows a young doctor — Noboru Yasumoto — whose life plan involves becoming the personal physician for the Shogunate but is first assigned to a rural clinic after medical school. He works under a strict clinic director and rebels because of his disgust at working at such a lowly place. But after getting to know his patients and becoming ill himself, Yasumoto revises his superficial notions about the profession.

December 10, 2010 Posted by | Uncategorized | , | Leave a comment

   

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