Health and Medical News and Resources

General interest items edited by Janice Flahiff

Nursing Research Focuses On Health Trajectory Research

From the 8 June 2011 Medical News Today article

Health care research typically focuses on final outcomes such as cure or death overlooking the fact that health and illness are dynamic states that evolve and change over time. A special collection of articles on health trajectory research is now available in a supplement to Nursing Research***, official journal of the Eastern Nursing Research Society and the Western Institute of Nursing. The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.

The special supplement presents a series of original studies and commentaries on the development of nursing intervention science focused on the “promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health over time.” It reflects a growing interest in studying the ways that health care interventions can affect health trajectories at different stages of life…

…Several types of health trajectories can be affected by nursing interventions. Developmental trajectories refer to normal physiologic changes such as puberty, menopause, or aging or even life transitions such as marriage or retirement. Acute illness trajectories have to do with illnesses that tend to resolve or improve over time, while chronic illness trajectories are associated with illnesses that aren’t curable, but can still have positive health outcomes. Other categories include disability trajectories and end-of-life or dying trajectories. “Having a better understanding of these various health trajectories and how they can be shaped through interventions will help clinicians provide better care for individuals and families at all stages of their lives,” Drs. Wyman and Henly write.

Articles in the special issue present the nursing science perspective on health trajectory research and important theoretical considerations in studying health and illness over time including advances in statistical modeling that support this area of research. The supplement also includes a series of original studies illustrating the health trajectory perspective in health and illness; in community, hospital, and laboratory settings; and across time scales ranging from seconds to years. Topics include:

— Changes in functioning of the parasympathetic nervous system related to feeding in newborns after surgery for major congenital heart abnormalities.

— Changes in patterns of condom use by sexually active teens participating in a pregnancy-prevention program.

— Changes in anxiety related to mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

— Changes in patterns of pain (claudication) during treadmill testing in patients with peripheral artery disease.

— Changes in gastrointestinal symptoms in incontinent patients being treated with fiber supplements.

— Changes in burden and depression in caregivers of spouses with dementia as they transition to nursing care.

 

***For suggestions on how to get these articles for free or at low cost, click here

June 14, 2011 Posted by | Medical and Health Research News, Professional Health Care Resources | , , | Leave a comment

World Health Statistics 2011 now available online


The WHO (World Health Organization) World Health Statistics 2011 is now available online.

It contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 193 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets.

Click here to download the full report, sections, or data tables only.

From the press report

13 MAY 2011 | GENEVA – An increasing number of countries are facing a double burden of disease as the prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases and cancers increase and many countries still struggle to reduce maternal and child deaths caused by infectious diseases, for the Millennium Development Goals, according to the World Health Statistics 2011 released by the WHO today.

Noncommunicable diseases such heart diseases, stroke, diabetes and cancer, now make up two-thirds of all deaths globally, due to the population aging and the spread of risk factors associated with globalization and urbanization. The control of risk factors such as tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet and excessive use of alcohol becomes more critical. The latest WHO figures showed that about 4 out of 10 men and 1 in 11 women are using tobacco and about 1 in 8 adults is obese.

In addition many developing countries continue to battle health issues such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria that are most likely to kill children under the age of five. In 2009, 40% of all child deaths were among newborns (aged 28 days or less). Much more needs to be done to achieve the MDGs by the target date of 2015, but progress has accelerated.

Child mortality declined at 2.7% per year since 2000, twice as fast as during the 1990s (1.3%). Mortality among children under five years fell from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.1 million in 2009.
Maternal mortality declined at 3.3% per year since 2000, almost twice as fast in the decade after 2000 than during the 1990s (2%). The number of women dying as a result of complications during pregnancy and childbirth has decreased from 546,000 in 1990 to 358,000 in 2008.
“This evidence really shows that no country in the world can address health from either an infectious disease perspective or a noncommunicable disease one. Everyone must develop a health system that addresses the full range of the health threats in both areas.” says Ties Boerma, Director of WHO’s Department of Health Statistics and Informatics.

The report also shows that more money is being spent on health and people can expect to live longer (life expectancy in 2009 was 68 years, up from 64 years in 1990); but the gap in health spending between low- and high-income countries remains very large.

In low-income countries, per capita, health expenditure is an estimated US$ 32 (or about 5.4% of gross domestic product) and in high-income countries it is US$ 4590 (or about 11% of gross domestic product).
High-income countries have, per capita, on average 10 times more doctors, 12 times more nurses and midwives and 30 times more dentists than low-income countries.
Virtually all deliveries of babies in high-income countries are attended by skilled health personnel; but this is the case for only 40% of deliveries in low-income countries.

Editor Flahiff’s note....This is certainly born out by my Peace Corps experience. In 1980/81 Liberia, I remember attending the funeral of a well to do area woman who died in childbirth. And I remember how heartbroken one of my students was at the death of her month old child. Malaria and diarrhea were epidemic.

I am now sponsoring a Liberian who wants to be a nurse. I cannot begin to imagine what the Liberian health care system is facing. Many of the infectious diseases will probably continue to decrease  at least partly due to better sanitation (as more pump wells as opposed to open wells). But these diseases will remain and she will be facing increasing populations with non infectious diseases. I only hope that countries with resources (as the US) will work to empower Liberians and others to meet these challenges. It is not only a matter of global security, but of respecting human dignity.

  • Nurses addressing access, quality & health (blog item at the Center for Health Media and Policy at Hunter College)

    “The first week of May, 2300 registered nurses from 123 countries attended the International Council of NursesConference in Malta. We left challenged and charged to act on the innovative ideas presented by this year’s 70 expert presenters. The topics covered were extensive including the massive increase of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), primary care, climate change, disaster nursing, and gender violence.  CHMP’s co-director, Diana Mason, delivered the keynote focusing on the conference theme, nurses driving access, quality and health,addressing social determinants of health. She provided insights into how mobile health creates access to health care and selected innovative models of care designed by nurses globally challenging us to think broadly on how we can impact change to increase access and quality care. Mason crafted a powerful visual presentation that provided the backdrop to her engaging, thought-provoking presentation which earned her a standing ovation.”….

  • Chronic diseases now leading global killer: WHO (ctv.ca)
  • WHO Warns of Enormous Burden of Chronic Disease (nlm.nih.gov)

May 14, 2011 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Doctor shortage looming? Use nurses, report says

Excerpts from an Oct 5 Reuter Health Information News Release

Nurses can handle much of the strain that healthcare reform will place on doctors and should be given both the education and the authority to take on more medical duties, the U.S. Institute of Medicine said on Tuesday.

A report from the institute calls for an overhaul in the responsibility and training of nurses and says doing so is key to improving the fragmented and expensive U.S. healthcare system — President Barack Obama’s signature political initiative.

But the American Medical Association, which represents about 120,000 practicing physicians as well as students and resident doctors, quickly criticized the report.

“Nurses are critical to the health care team, but there is no substitute for education and training,” the group said in a statement. “With a shortage of both nurses and physicians, increasing the responsibility of nurses is not the answer to the physician shortage.”

Nurses already often deliver babies, counsel patients with heart disease or diabetes and care for dying cancer patients — and these roles should be expanded nationally and paid for by both public and private insurers, the report says.

“Nurses have to be full partners with doctors,” said Donna Shalala, a former Health and Human Services secretary who helped write the report. She said it should “usher in golden age of nursing” by allowing nurses to practice “to the full extent of their education and training

 

 

 

October 7, 2010 Posted by | Health News Items | , | Leave a comment

   

%d bloggers like this: