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[News article] Ciliopathies lie behind many human diseases — ScienceDaily

Ciliopathies lie behind many human diseases — ScienceDaily.

Excerpt

Date:December 1, 2014
Source: American Institute of Biological Sciences
Summary: Growing interest in cilia, which are finger-like organelles that extend from the bodies of individual cells, has revealed their role in a number of human ailments. As a result of cilia’s presence in a wide variety of cells, defects in them cause diverse human diseases that warrant further study.

Cilia perform a broad range of functions, including a starring role in cell signalling. Motile ones wiggle and so move fluids within the body, including cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. In humans, cilia are found on almost every cell in the body. Because of this, ciliopathies often make themselves known as syndromes with widely varying effects on a number of tissue types. For instance, the ciliopathy Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy involves the development of abnormally short ribs, accompanied by short limbs and, occasionally, the development of extra digits.

In primary ciliary dyskinesia, motile cilia are dysfunctional and fail to beat. This can lead to bronchitis resulting from the failure to clear mucus from the sufferer’s airways. Male patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia are infertile because of impaired motility of the sperm’s flagellum (flagella and cilia are structurally similar).

The article’s authors point to a number of other human diseases in which cilia may play a role; for example, some cancers and neurological diseases may be related to ciliopathies. Because of the limitations placed on research involving humans, the authors propose the use of model species ranging from the green alga Chlamydomonas to the house mouse to further study the role of cilia. They write, “We can anticipate that new and improved techniques will open new avenues for gaining further insight into these immensely important and ever more fascinating cell organelles.”

December 5, 2014 Posted by | Medical and Health Research News | , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Disease Burden Links Ecology to Economic Growth

journal-5.pbio.1001456.g001

Figure 1. (Left) Per capita DALYs lost to VBPDs along a latitudinal gradient.
(Right) Per capita income across latitude is inversely correlated with the burden of VBPDs 

 

 

From the 27 December 2012 article at Science Daily

 A new study, published Dec. 27 in the open access journal PLOS Biology, finds that vector-borne and parasitic diseases have substantial effects on economic development across the globe, and are major drivers of differences in income between tropical and temperate countries. The burden of these diseases is, in turn, determined by underlying ecological factors: it is predicted to rise as biodiversity falls. This has significant implications for the economics of health care policy in developing countries, and advances our understanding of how ecological conditions can affect economic growth.

According to conventional economic wisdom, the foundation of economic growth is in political and economic institutions. “This is largely Cold War Economics about how to allocate property rights — with the government or with the private sector,” says Dr Matthew Bonds, an economist at Harvard Medical School, and the lead author of the new study. However, Dr Bonds and colleagues were interested instead in biological processes that transcend such institutions, and which might form a more fundamental economic foundation…

..

The results of the analysis suggest that infectious disease has as powerful an effect on a nation’s economic health as governance, say the authors. “The main asset of the poor is their own labor,” says Dr Bonds. “Infectious diseases, which are regulated by the environment, systematically steal human resources. Economically speaking, the effect is similar to that of crime or government corruption on undermining economic growth.”

This result has important significance for international aid organizations, as it suggests that money spent on combating disease would also stimulate economic growth….

Read the entire article here

December 29, 2012 Posted by | environmental health | , , , , , | Leave a comment

   

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